Comment from Agrometeorologist

Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with the Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish municipalities (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the fourth reporting period, i.e. from April 21st to June 20th, 2020, the average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -1mm. In the analysed period it has increased by 46 mm in relation to the previous reporting period (April 11th – June 10th) and by 99 mm in relation to the first reporting period (March 21st – May 20th).

The largest water deficit in the period from April 21st t° June 20th ranging from -160 t° -179 mm was still recorded in the area of Szczecin Coastland (Uznam, Wolin, Trzebiatów Coast, Goleniów Plain) in the Poznań Lake District and the Zielona Góra Hills. Considerable water shortages, from -120 to -160 mm, were also recorded in the western part of the Pomeranian and Greater Poland Lake Districts. In large areas of the country water deficit ranged between -60 and -119 mm, whereas the lowest water deficit was recorded in the area of the Carpathian Foothills, the Western Beskids, the Podlasie Lowland, and in the southern part of the Masurian Lake District. In these areas CWB values reached above -50 mm.

Based on the current humidity conditions, IUNG-PIB states agricultural drought in the area of Poland.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie.

Agricultural drought affected the following crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Strawberries,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Legumes,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage.

In the fourth reporting period, from April 21st to June 20th, 2020, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. Agricultural drought in this crop was recorded in 233 gminas (9.41% of all gminas in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 316, which constitutes 7.51%.

Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 2.46% of arable land (decrease by 0.78%). Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 1. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826478.0516.21
2.zachodniopomorskie1138474.3422.96
3.wielkopolskie2267934.966.19
4.dolnośląskie16931.780.02
5.podlaskie11810.850.01
6.pomorskie12310.810.00
7.kujawsko-pomorskie14410.690.01

Agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 146 gminas in Poland (5.89% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 176, which constitutes 6.83%.

Agricultural drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.84% of arable land (decrease by 1.3% in relation to the previous reporting period). Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 2. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1137061.958.97
2.lubuskie823643.905.53
3.wielkopolskie2264017.701.50

In this period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 120 gminas in Poland (4.84% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 151, which constitutes 3.03%.

Agricultural drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.77% of arable land (decrease by 0.54% of arable land). Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1136153.989.35
2.lubuskie822834.153.65
3.wielkopolskie2263113.721.20

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 79 gminas in Poland (3.19% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 119, which constitutes 6.38%.

Drought conditions were stated in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.35% of arable land (decrease by 1.82% of arable land). Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1134943.364.56
2.lubuskie821214.631.21
3.wielkopolskie226187.960.49

In the current sixty-day reporting period agricultural drought affected also rape and turnip rape. It was recorded in 63 gminas in Poland (2.54% of all gminas in the country), which constitutes an increase of 2.22% in relation to the previous reporting period.

Agricultural drought occurred in 3 voivodeships in the area of 0.20% of arable land, which constitutes an increase of 0.19% in relation to the previous reporting period. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in rape and turnip rape in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1134237.172.85
2.lubuskie82910.980.54
3.wielkopolskie226125.310.21

Agricultural drought affected also legumes. It was recorded in 30 gminas in Poland (1.21% of all gminas in the country). It occurred in 3 voivodeships in the area of 0.08% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1132421.241.40
2.lubuskie8233.660.09
3.wielkopolskie22631.330.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in maize for grain. It was recorded in 9 gminas in Poland (0.36% of all gminas in the country), in the area of 0.01% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11397.960.20

Agricultural drought affected maize for silage as well. It was recorded in 9 gminas in Poland (0.36% of all gminas in the country) in the area of 0.01% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11397.960.20

April was warm this year, with temperatures ranging from 6 to more than 10°C. The highest values were recorded in the south-western part of the country (from 9 to more than 10°C, which exceeded the norm by 1 to more than 1.5°C). The further north-east, the lower was the temperature, ranging between 6-8°C. In the vast areas of the country temperatures in April exceeded the multiannual norm by 0.5 to 1°C. It is worth noting that the sunshine duration was considerable in April, reaching even more than 300h in the southern part of the country, which is 100% more than the multiannual norm, and more than 270h in north-eastern regions, which is 70% more than the norm. Such solar-thermal conditions led to exceptionally high evapotranspiration.

May, on the other hand, was cold. The lowest temperatures were recorded in the north of Poland, ranging between 9 and 11°C, whereas the highest temperatures occurred in the Lubusz Land, exceeding 12°C. In the majority of areas temperatures ranged between 11 and 12°C. In the vast areas of Poland temperatures in May were lower than the multiannual norm by 1-2.5°C, or even more than 2.5° in the Polish Uplands, Masovia, and Warmia-Masuria.

In the first and second decade of June, the highest temperatures (from 14 to 16°C in the 1st and from 19.5 to more than 20.5°C in the 2nd) were recorded in the vast area of Central Poland. In the south and north of the country it was colder, from 12 to 14°C in the first and from 16 to 19.5°C in the second decade.

In April precipitation was scarce, particularly in the north of Poland (below 10 mm) where it constituted from below 10 to 20% of the multiannual norm. The further south, the higher precipitation occurred, ranging from 10 to more than 30 mm and constituting 20 to more than 40% of the norm.

In May precipitation was highly diversified. In the first decade of the month the highest precipitation values were recorded in the east and south of Poland, ranging from 60 to 150 mm and constituting 100-160% of the multiannual norm. The lowest precipitation, between 5 and 10 mm, occurred in the north-western part of Poland, where it constituted 50-10% of the norm.

In the first and second decade of June precipitation was intense or very intense throughout the country, reaching from 15 to 100 mm. Only in the north-western regions of Poland precipitation was less intense and ranged from less than 5 to 15 mm. While in the Silesian, Kraków-Częstochowa and Małopolska Uplands similar precipitation was recorded in the first decade, and in Podlasie Lowland in the second decade of the month.

As stated by IUNG-PIB, water deficiency in crops in the period of April 21st to June 20th has decreased by 10-30 mm in relation to the previous reporting period (April 11th – June 10th). The area affected by agricultural drought has reduced in relation to the previous reporting period for the following crops: spring and winter cereals, fruit shrubs and strawberries. The number of gminas and the percentage of the potential area of arable land affected by agricultural drought has decreased as well. However, in case of rape and turnip rape the range of drought has increased.

Lack of sufficient precipitation can still be observed in the north-western part of Poland, where it leads to considerable water deficiency in soil. Due to a constant water shortage, agricultural drought is still recorded in a large number of gminas and in vast areas of the voivodeships: lubuskie, zachodniopomorskie and wielkopolskie. Whereas humidity conditions improved significantly in the following voivodeships: łódzkie, lubelskie, świętokrzyskie, śląskie, małopolskie, opolskie, dolnośląskie and podlaskie, where water deficiency decreased.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by: Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. IUNG-PIB, Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko, Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska, Dr Jan Jadczyszyn, Mgr Piotr Koza, Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska, Mgr Agata Ścibior

Contact
Institute of Soil Science and Plants Cultivation
State Research Institute
ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy

Zakład Agrometeorologii i Zastosowań Informatyki
phone: 81 4786 752

Zakład Gleboznawstwa Erozji i Ochrony Gruntów
phone: 81 4786 779

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Opracowanie IUNG-PIB 2020 na zlecenie Misterstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi